Wednesday, 25 March 2015

SHRAVANA, MANANA, NIDIDHYASANA

(HEARING, CONTEMPLATION, MEDITATION OF SELF-ENQUIRY)

Nididhyasana (Sanskrit: निदिध्यासन) means profound 
and repeated meditation Nididhyasana is meditation
of the 
Atman. It is deep and intense contemplation.
The 
Sruti is the seed of Vedantic knowledge sown by
the 
Guru (teacher) in the mind of sishya (disciple) who
then tends that seed by his shravana,Manana
 and
Nididhyasana.


Nididhyasana is meditation of the Athman. It is deep and 
intense contemplation. In this state the mind is 
established in the Absolute and no worldly thoughts 
intrude; contemplation is like the study flow of oil, the 
steady flow of Brahmakara-vritti. It is the only way for 
conquering Maya which conquest of Maya is 
destruction of the mind. It is the last of the three phases 
of Sadhana; the first phase is shravana ('listening or 
study'), and the second Manana ('raising and clearing 
of doubts'). The aim of Nididhyasana is to settle as 
Athma which is our sahaja(real) state; one becomes 
established in the knowledge that liberation is our 
true nature Sankara asks 
– How can moksa arise merely by repetition of words 
without effecting the dissolution of whatever is drsya
(cognisable through the senses of perception or through 
the mind) without knowing the truth of the Athman?
 (Vivekachudamani 65)

According to Suresvara and Anandagiri, Nididhyasana, 
prescribed by the Upanishads, is not a process like 
meditation (Dhyana) but an independent knowledge and 
the final step of saksat aparoksat. Nididhyasana done 
independently of sravana does not lead to the realization 
of the Atman.आत्मा ब्रह्मेति वाक्यार्थे निःशेषेण विचारिते |
 - By a thorough analysis of "Atman is Brahman" the 
direct knowledge "I am Brahman" is achieved 
(Panchadasi VII.58)

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (II.iv.5) defines Nididhyasana 
as the meditation for the sake of direct vision.Yajnavalkya
tells his wife –
आत्मा वा अरे द्रष्टव्यः श्रोतव्यो मन्तव्यो निदिध्यासितव्यो मैत्रेयि,
आत्मनो व अरे दर्शनेन श्रवणेन मत्या विज्ञानेनेदं सर्वं विदितम् ||
"The Self, my dear Maitreyi, should be realized – 
should be heard of, reflected on and medtated upon;
by the realization of the Self, my dear, through hearing, 
reflection and meditation, all this is known." 
- (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad St.II.iv.5)

Sankara states:-

श्रुतेः शतगुणं विद्यान्मननं मननादपि |
निदिध्यासं लक्षगुणम् अनन्तं निर्विकल्पकम् ||
"Reflection (manana) is hundred times superior 
to listening (sravana);
meditation (nididhyasana) is hundred times 
superior to reflection; nirvikalpaka samadhi is 
infinitely superior.
Nididhyasana is the practice of atma-vichara
self-enquiry, self-investigation, self-scrutiny or 
self-attentiveness;it leads to Nirvikalpa Samadhi from 
where there is no return into lower states of 
consciousness, and in which state there is no longer 
mind, duality, a subject-object relationship or experience.

Suresvara states:-
शास्त्रचार्यानुभवनैर्हेतुभिश्च समर्थितः|
ईदृगैकात्म्यसंबोधो निदिध्यासनमुच्यते ||
"Nididhyasana is so called when, instruction about 
the uniqueness of the Atman is justified by (proper) 
reasons viz. the Sruti, (the instructions of) teachers 
and (one’s own) experience (of the same)."
Nididhyasana consists in acquisition of vakyarthajnanaand 
Nididhyasana or atma-vichara (self-enquiry), is subjective 
meditation in which there is no focussing of consciousness 
or effort of will in which process the ego withdraws into 
the source. Upasana, which is symbolic meditation, can 
give the required training to the mind to proceed with 
Nididhyasana.

Ramana Maharashi has told --


By sravana , Knowledge dawns. That is the flame. 
By manana , the Knowledge is not allowed to vanish. 
Just as the flame is protected by a wind-screen, so 
the other thoughts are not allowed to overwhelm the 
right knowledge. By nididhyasana  the flame is kept up 
to burn bright by trimming the wick. Whenever other 
thoughts arise, the mind is turned inward to the light 
of true knowledge. When this becomes natural, it is 
samadhi. The enquiry "Who am I?" is the sravana
The ascertainment of the true import of `I' is the 
manana. The practical application on each occasion 
is nididhyasana. Being as `I' is samadhi.

NIJAGUNA SHIVA YOGENDRA ON--

TOOLS FOR MANANA 
!) YUKTHI
2) THARKA
3) ANUMANA

NIDIDHYASANA PANCHA YOGA
(NIDIDHYASANA RUPA YOGA PANCHAKAM)

1) MANTHRA YOGA--
    By Manthras like Pranava(OM-KARA), achieving Manolaya
    (thoughtless Mind) in Paramathma is called Manthra Yoga.

2) SPARSHA YOGA--
     Along with Manthra Yoga pure Mind joining together, 
     starting from Muladhara through path of Sushumna Nadi 
     reaching centre of Sahasrara with aura of Paramathma 
     achieving Mano Laya(thoughtless Mind) is called 
     Sparsha Ypga.
    
3) BHAVA YOGA --
     Remembering Virat form of Eshwara --
     Heaven is Murdna, directions are nose, Sun & moon
     are eyes,Fire is face,sky is navel,earth is feet  or 
     thinking Eshwara adorned with weapons, cloth,
     jewellery of Divine form,eliminating parts one by one,
     remaining Brahman with form,in that Mano Laya 
     taking place is Bhava Yoga.
     
4) ABHAVA YOGA--
     That form which can not be seen by sense parts,
     of unimaginable size,without any limitation Brahman,
     in that Mano Laya taking place is called Abhava Yoga
     
5) MAHA YOGA --
    Success in the world, thinking I understood, I did not
    understand,without getting into any trouble,always
    remaining in the same way 'Prathyag Athma Rupa
    Brahman' in that Mano Laya taking place is called 
    Maha Yoga.  

KRISHNA CONSCIOUS PATH follows 9 limbs --
where also first step is SHRAVANAM.
MANANA is replaced by Keerthanam & Smaranam
NIDIDHYASANA is replaced by Athmanivedanam.
     Sage Narada affirmed that God could be realised
through these nine forms of devotion, namely, 
1) Sravanam – Listening to the glories of the Lord 
2) Keerthanam – Singing His glories
3) Smaranam  Chanting His name and remembering Him 
4) Padasevanam   Serving His lotus feet 
5) Archanam  Worshipping Him offering flowers,
                       leaves,water etc.
6) Vandanam Paying obeisance to Him 
7) Daasyam Considering oneself as His servant 
8) Sakhyam  Considering Him as the best friend 
9) Athmanivedanam  Total Self Surrender 

SHRAVANA, MANANA, NIDIDHYASANA



Parameshwara teaching Shanmuga


'Parameshwara teaching Shanmuga' postings are based on
'Jnana Sindhu' writings of great CHIDANANDA AVADHUTHA 
of very high spiritual level based on VEDANTHA
(UPANISHATHS). He had given the copy of the book to the 
parents of a future Avadhutha even before the baby was born, telling parents Goddess will take birth as their son & to give the book to the boy when he would be twelve year old, who is destined to become an Avadhutha by name 
AJATHA NAGALINGA SWAMY at NAVALAGUNDHA 
in north Karnataka.

Parameshwara told Shanmuka--
Shanmukha ! If you are interested to get liberated forever --
 you have to achieve Three Sadhanas called Shravana,
Manana, Nididhyasana. A Sadhaka who has understood 
the above three sadhanas, achieving liberation is not a 
great thing.That Sadhaka gets the kingdom of Advaitha. 
A person who forsakes them becomes helpless.
      Shravana is the form of Brahma. Manana is the 
form of Vishnu, Nididhyasana is the form of Shankara.
Those who know this will not be troubled by Lord of
Death - YAMA.These three Sadhanas which are forms 
of Thrimurthy, have been published as headlines in 
Vedas, to help this world.

1) SHRAVANA
Being under a Guru, involved fully in serving Guru,hearing 
attentively & fully understanding what Guru says, without 
any differentiation in intellect, having firm conviction that
 I am Athma(Soul) is Shravana.

Understanding fully the meaning of what Shruthis
(Vedas,Smrithis,Bhagvad Githa) say,everything is Brahman 
only, thus deciding is Shravana.
                                   
All Shruthi,Smrithi,scriptures(puranas),history,examples
decided by Upanishads, meaning,witness,mantra
(chantings),tantra(ritual means to get desired results),
Yantra(diagrams to ward off problems or for 
achievement), Suthra(short essence conveying elaborate 
explanations & linked to each other as the subject 
develops), Darshana(explanation of subject as if you 
see a picture), Matha(different views on the same 
subject), Chakra(cycles),Thathva-Kosha(truths stipulated 
on a subject bundled together), Knowledge(jnana),etc. 
knowing & understanding is Shravana.

Analyzing whether I am Jiva, Shiva or Athma & concluding 
that I am Athma is Shravana

Body, parts of body, elements(earth,water,fire etc.) activities, 
form or shape, urine, night,limbs,intellect, hunger,thirst,
old age,dying,lust,sorrow,attachment -- understanding 
I am not all these is Shravana.

2) MANANA
I am witness for everything, beyond imagination
understanding thus & meditating is Manana.

Sitting in Padmasana posture, getting rid of Vasanas by 
elimination,concentrating on the tip of nose, controlling 
prana,apana air currents, meditating in hridayakasha
(sky of heart) form of Lord Shiva is Manana.

Crow sitting on the mast of a ship in the middle of sea,
unable to see the shore, repeatedly returns back to the 
ship, same way controlling erratically moving mind, 
meditating on Athma(Soul) is Manana.

Closing eyes,meditating in hridayakasha (sky of heart) 
form of' Shiva is Manana.

Cast,morality,scare, hesitation, expanding,destruction,
elements, are not myself, thinking thus is Manana.

Through Viveka(knowledge of reality & unreality),making 
intellect firm, meditating on Athma(Soul) is Manana.

Controlling senses running behind worldly pleasures
is Manana.

Without expecting anything, not even slightly 
discouraged, not allowing anybody to object to my yoga,
without joining unnecessary things, meditating continuously 
on Brahman is Manana

3) NIDIDHYASANA
When all the sins get destroyed, when you reach 
perfection in Manana, you start experiencing Brahman
it is called Nididhyasana, so say sages with knowledge. 

Fire generated by rubbing one wood on to another, is 
capable of burning down a whole forest. Same way by 
rubbing of mind & Brahman, resulting light of  knowledge
drives away darkness of ignorance is Nididhyasana

By the churning of mountain Mandara in sea, how Amruth
(elixir) is produced, same way by churning of mind in Athma
(Soul) resulting Brahma Amruth(Divine Elixir) is Nididhyasana.

Just as Sugar cane Juice is called by a different name as
lump of Jaggery, same way One Athma looks different 
when called as Manas(Mind), understanding by firm 
conviction as one thing only is Nididhyasana.

When you eat beetle leaves with beetle nut slowly enjoying, 
it looks very tasty, same way when you churn your mind
by Yama(control of senses), Niyama(controlled disciplines)
 etc. resulting Divine Bliss is Nididhyasana.

Low grade gold is purified by repeatedly heating it in fire
till pure gold comes out, same way by punishing impure 
mind through dispassion & by churning mind in Athma(soul)
mind becomes one pointed,thoughtless is Nididhyasana.

Dissolving the mind in Athma(Soul) & becoming 
Yoga-Purusha is Nididhyasana

Scrutinising Thathvas(Truths) knowledge(Jnana) only 
becomes Truth, by purifying this dirty mind & dissolving it
in Athma & thinking that Prathyag-Athma(Real Athma) is 
only one is Nididhyasana.

When a mirror covered in dust is  cleaned, our reflection
seen clearly, same way by concentrating the mind on 
Athma(Soul) & deciding 'I AM ONLY ONE' ie, 'ATHMA
IS ONLY ONE' is Nididhyasana

By digging out buried treasure under earth & looking at 
that treasure, recognising the Athma(Soul) in this body
is Nididhyasana.

What is seen is like a dream,unreal everything is Brahman
only thus deciding is Nididhyasana.

My Child ! Greatness of this subject is infinite.He who 
succeeds in this Sadhana, bride by name Mukthi is ready 
to garland him standing near by.

Due to AVIDYA, without knowing who you are, you think
this world is Real.When knowledge dawns in you, you see
Brahman in everything. Dog,knife made out of sugar mould
is sugar only, same way world that is seen by you is 
Brahman only. 
Names & Forms are only illusory like dream, In this body
like a city,when JIVA is there, senses rule this city driving
it in many directions. When SADGURU enters this city 
all play of senses comes to a stand still & peace prevails.
All senses become for name sake only & follow GURU's
orders only.
My Child ! because you have forgotten yourself these 
SADHANAS were necessary,otherwise for you, there is 
no need of any Sadhana.Because you were immersed
in AVIDYA, to destroy that SADGURUNATHA was 
required.
Long back Sri RAMA forgot who he was & faced difficulties, 
sorrow, when Narada & Lord Brahma reminded him about
Athma Vichara, came to know he himself was Paramathma
& became very happy. Same way you also get guided by
SADGURU & be happy.
By hearing from Sadguru,then apply it to mind through 
contemplation(Manana) & settle in Nididhyasana. In this 
way Shankara gave upadesha on Shravana, Manana,  
Nididhyasana & blessed Shanmukha to become SHIVA
only. This should not be told to bad people,who are doing
wrong deeds,people committed many sins.

He who achieves these Sadhana-Thrayas(three), liberation 
is very easily achieved like a amla berry clearly seen on 
your hand -- so said Shankara to Shanmukha. 


       ===============================

Please Read --

JNANA ASHTANGA & JNANA PANCHADASHANGA YOGAS



SADHANA CHATHUSTAYA OF SHANKARACHARYA
 SADHANA CHATHUSTAYA OF SHANKARACHARYA